Fujitsu develops technology to speed up quantum circuit computation in quantum simulator by 200 times (2024)

Fujitsu develops technology to speed up quantum circuit computation in quantum simulator by 200 times (1)

TOKYO, Feb 19, 2024 - (JCN Newswire) - Fujitsu today announced the development of a novel technique on a quantum simulator that speeds up quantum-classical hybrid algorithms, which have been proposed as a method for the early use of quantum computers, achieving 200 times the computational speed of previous simulations. For quantum circuit computations using conventional quantum and classical hybrid algorithms, the number of times of quantum circuit computation increases depending on the scale of the problem to be solved. Larger-scale problems that require many qubits, including simulations in the materials and drug discovery fields, may even require several hundred days.

The newly developed technology enables simultaneous processing of a large number of repetitively executed quantum circuit computations distributed among multiple groups. Fujitsu has also devised a way to simplify problems on a large scale with less loss of accuracy by using one of the world's largest-scale quantum simulators (1)it has developed. Fujitsu has made it possible to perform computations on a quantum simulator in just one day, which would take an estimated 200 days to complete with conventional methods. As a result, it is now possible to complete simulations of large-scale quantum computation within a realistic timeframe and to simulate the behavior of larger molecules computed by a hybrid quantum-classical algorithm, leading to algorithm development.

Fujitsu plans to incorporate this technology into its hybrid quantum computing platform to accelerate research into the practical application of quantum computers in various fields, including finance and drug discovery. Additionally, Fujitsu will not only apply this technology to quantum simulators, but also to accelerate quantum circuit computations on actual quantum computers.

Background

Although the development of fault-tolerant quantum computers (FTQC (2) ) is currently progressing worldwide, current quantum computers face many problems, such as the inability to eliminate the effects of noise. At the same time, in order to demonstrate the usefulness of quantum computers ahead of FTQC, practical applications for small and medium-sized quantum computers (Noisy Intermediate-Scale Quantum Computer, NISQ) with noise tolerance of 100 to 1,000 qubits are being studied.

By applying VQE (3), a typical NISQ algorithm, Fujitsu, for example, has developed a quantum simulator for quantum application development (4) and has been working to speed up quantum circuit computation itself. However, in VQE, the number of iterations of quantum circuit computation increases as the size of the problem increases, so it takes a very long time to perform computation, especially for large problems requiring many qubits, and it is estimated that it takes several 100 days for a quantum simulator. Therefore, it was difficult to develop quantum algorithms for practical use.

Fujitsu develops technology to speed up quantum circuit computation in quantum simulator by 200 times (2)

Outline of the newly developed technology

In response to this problem, Fujitsu has developed a technology that achieves 200 times higher the performance speed of conventional technologies by simultaneously distributing multiple repetitively executed quantum circuit computations and reducing the amount of quantum circuit computations by reducing accuracy degradation.

Distributed concurrency of optimization processes requiring repeated computation of quantum circuits

Quantum-classical hybrid algorithms seek a quantum circuit that provides the lowest energy state, for example, the ground state of a molecule, by alternating between the process of performing quantum circuit computation and the process of optimizing quantum circuit parameters (5) using a classical computer. However, for parameter optimization of quantum circuits by classical computers, it is necessary to prepare a large number of quantum circuits with small changes in parameters, perform quantum circuit computation for all of them sequentially, and derive the optimal parameters from the results. This requires considerable time for computation, especially for larger-scale problems. Increasing the number of nodes simply to speed up circuit computation has conventionally been limited by communication overhead, and new technologies were required.

Focusing on the fact that quantum circuits with small parameter changes can be executed without affecting each other, Fujitsu has developed a distributed processing technology that enables each group to execute different quantum circuits by dividing the computation nodes of the quantum simulator into multiple groups and using RPC (6)technology to submit quantum circuit computation jobs through the network. Using this technology, multiple quantum circuits with different parameters can be simultaneously distributed and calculated, and the computation time can be reduced to 1/70th of the conventional technology.

In addition, since the computation quantity in the quantum-classical hybrid algorithm is proportional to the number of terms in the equation of the problem to be solved, and the number of terms is the fourth power of the number of qubits in the general VQE, the computation quantity increases as the problem scale increases, and the result cannot be obtained in a realistic time. Through simulations of large molecules using 32 qubits of one of the world's largest 40 qubit quantum simulators, Fujitsu has found that the ratio of terms with small coefficients to the total number of terms increases as the scale increases, and that the effect of terms with small coefficients on the final results of calculations is minimal. By taking advantage of this characteristic, Fujitsu was able to achieve both a reduction in the number of terms in the equation and prevention of deterioration in computation accuracy, thereby reducing the quantum circuit computation time by approximately 80%.

Fujitsu develops technology to speed up quantum circuit computation in quantum simulator by 200 times (3)
Fujitsu develops technology to speed up quantum circuit computation in quantum simulator by 200 times (4)

By combining these two technologies, Fujitsu was able to demonstrate for the first time in the world that when distributed processing of 1024 compute nodes into 8 groups for a 32 qubit problem, it was possible to achieve a quantum simulation run time of 32 qubits in one day, compared to the previous estimate of 200 days. This is expected to advance the development of quantum algorithms for problems with a large number of qubits and the application of quantum computers to the fields of materials and finance.

Yukihiro Okuno, Senior Research Scientist, Analysis Technology Center, Fujifilm Corporation, comments:

�We are investigating the application of quantum computers to materials development. Among them, the use of VQE in NISQ devices is an essential consideration. We expect that this acceleration technology will greatly speed up the principle verification of the VQE algorithm.�

Tsuyoshi Moriya, Vice President, Digital Design Center, Tokyo Electron Limited, comments:

�We are studying the use of VQE to calculate the energy of molecules related to semiconductor materials, to predict the electronic structure and physical properties of specific materials, and to optimize chemical reactions in semiconductor manufacturing processes. We hope that accelerating this process will enable us to quickly verify the principle and effectiveness of the VQE algorithm and discover its usefulness. NISQ devices whose use is limited by noise and errors will be considered with an eye toward these limitations.�

[1] One of the world's largest-scale quantum simulators :It is one of the world's largest permanent dedicated units of State Vector (As of February 2024, according to Fujitsu), a universal quantum circuit simulation method.
[2] FTQC :Fault-Tolerant Quantum Computer. Quantum computer capable of executing quantum computation without error while correcting quantum error.
[3] VQE :Abbreviation for Variational Quantum Eigensolver, a technique for determining the energy of matter by repeating computation with a quantum computer and optimization with a classical computer.
[4] A quantum simulator for quantum application development :Fujitsu achieves major technical milestone with world's fastest 36 qubit quantum simulator (March 30, 2022)
[5] Quantum circuit parameters :Rotation angle of the gate of the quantum circuit for adjusting the reference quantum state to a physically meaningful quantum state.
[6] RPC :Short for Remote Procedure Call. The art of performing a process from one computer to another over a network or the like.

About Fujitsu

Fujitsu�s purpose is to make the world more sustainable by building trust in society through innovation. As the digital transformation partner of choice for customers in over 100 countries, our 124,000 employees work to resolve some of the greatest challenges facing humanity. Our range of services and solutions draw on five key technologies: Computing, Networks, AI, Data & Security, and Converging Technologies, which we bring together to deliver sustainability transformation. Fujitsu Limited (TSE:6702) reported consolidated revenues of 3.7 trillion yen (US$28 billion) for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2023 and remains the top digital services company in Japan by market share. Find out more: www.fujitsu.com.

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Fujitsu develops technology to speed up quantum circuit computation in quantum simulator by 200 times (2024)

FAQs

Fujitsu develops technology to speed up quantum circuit computation in quantum simulator by 200 times? ›

Tokyo, February 19, 2024

How does quantum computing speed up? ›

Whereas adding more classical bits linearly increases how many calculations a computer can do, adding more qubits to a quantum computer exponentially increases its computing power — far outstripping a classical binary computer once there are enough qubits.

What is the fastest quantum simulator? ›

Related Links
  • Fujitsu Quantum Day.
  • “Fujitsu achieves major technical milestone with world's fastest 36 qubit quantum simulator” (press release, March 30, 2022)
Jan 25, 2024

How many times faster is a quantum computer than a normal computer? ›

That's 100 million times faster than a regular computer chip. They claimed that a problem their D-Wave 2X machine processed inside one second would take a classical computer 10,000 years to solve.

How many times more powerful is a quantum computer? ›

Since a quantum computer can contain these multiple states simultaneously, it has the potential to be millions of times more powerful than todays most powerful supercomputers. The superposition of qubits is what gives Quantum computers their inherent parallelism.

Why are quantum algorithms faster? ›

What makes quantum algorithms interesting is that they might be able to solve some problems faster than classical algorithms because the quantum superposition and quantum entanglement that quantum algorithms exploit generally cannot be efficiently simulated on classical computers (see Quantum supremacy).

Is quantum machine learning faster? ›

Another section of the processor then took information from those qubits and analysed it using quantum machine learning. The researchers found the technique to be exponentially faster than classical measurement and data analysis.

Who has the fastest quantum computer in the world? ›

In November 2022, America's IBM launched its 433-qubit “Osprey” processor, the world's fastest quantum computer at the time. In October last year, Californian start-up Atom Computing left the Osprey behind with the debut of its first quantum computer with more than 1,000 qubits.

Can you trust your quantum simulator? ›

They showed through theory and experiments that they could determine the accuracy of a quantum simulator by analyzing its random fluctuations. The team developed a new benchmarking protocol that can be applied to existing quantum analog simulators to gauge their fidelity based on their pattern of quantum fluctuations.

How fast can a quantum computer hack? ›

However, with a powerful enough quantum computer, an attacker could use a technique called Grover's algorithm to guess the key much faster than with a classical computer. In fact, a quantum computer with 128 qubits could crack a 128-bit AES key in a matter of seconds.

How fast is Google's quantum computer? ›

Google's Leap in Quantum Computing

Google's new quantum computer stands as a testament to this incredible advancement. It is a staggering 241 million times faster than the quantum computer Google released in 2019. In practical terms, this means that it can complete 47 years of computing tasks in just 6 seconds.

Which is faster supercomputer or quantum computer? ›

Quantum computers have shown that they can process certain tasks exponentially faster than classical computers. In late 2019, Google claimed that it had managed to solve a problem that would take 10,000 years for the world's fastest supercomputer within just 200s using a quantum computer.

Which computer is more powerful than quantum computer? ›

Between Quantum Computer vs Supercomputer, Supercomputers have been an important part of expanding what we know about the world for a long time. The AI Research SuperCluster (RSC), which is one of the most powerful supercomputers for AI, was made available by Meta at the beginning of this year.

Is the human brain more powerful than a quantum computer? ›

Theorists believe your brain might contain 100 billion quantum bits, which would make your own brain more powerful than all the digital computers in the world combined.

How powerful is Google's quantum computer? ›

Google's latest iteration of its quantum machine, the Sycamore quantum processor, currently holds 70 qubits. This is a substantial leap from the 53 qubits of its earlier version. This makes the new processor approximately 241 million times more robust than the previous model.

Does Google use supercomputers? ›

Google Compute Engine A3 supercomputers are purpose-built to train and serve the most demanding AI models that power today's generative AI and large language model innovation.

Is quantum computing faster than light? ›

A common misconception about entanglement is that the particles are communicating with each other faster than the speed of light, which would go against Einstein's special theory of relativity. Experiments have shown that this is not true, nor can quantum physics be used to send faster-than-light communications.

Will quantum computers accelerate AI? ›

Unleashing AI Potential with Quantum Synergy

Quantum computing amplifies this by accelerating complex algorithm processing and enabling the handling of intricately layered neural networks far beyond today's capabilities. In essence, it grants AI the wings to soar into new realms of learning and reasoning.

How fast is a 2 qubit quantum computer? ›

This sign flip was experimentally observed by the research group, thus demonstrating that a two-qubit gate can be operated in 6.5 nanoseconds, the fastest in the world.

How does superposition make quantum computers faster? ›

The fact that qubits can be entangled, makes a quantum computer more powerful than a classical computer. With the information stored in superposition, some problems can be solved exponentially faster.

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